Antarctica
January 5-15,2000



This is Jara and Pavel from Czech Republic at Polar Circle
66*33.7'S - 67*43.7'W



Super Captain Karl-Ulrich Lampe


Total Distance : 3621
Air Temperature : +1*C
Sea Temperature : -2*C - All Temperature
Wind : 7Bft - Beaufort Wind Scale
Total Passenger : 137
Total Crew : 82
Total : 219 from 16 countries - All Explorers




Photoalbum



Certifitace :

Swim at Antarctica
Landing at Port Lockroy
Landing at Palmer Station
Antarctic Circle
Logbook




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Bird List

Daily Program

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World
Countries and Unesco visited, by Jara

Countries and Unesco visited, by Paul



Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, driets place on earth. Two thirds of al1 our planes fresh water is locked up there in the form of ice in a continent twice the size of Australia. It is the world's highest continent, with more than half of the land over 2000m (6.560ft) above sea level, The ice on top reaches to 3500m (11,450ft). Only a few nunataks show as bare rock above the cap of ice whitch covers 98% of the land : only around the coast are there exposed areas where birds and seals may breed. Mean annual precipitation is less than 12cm , all falling as snow to create a polar desert. It is the region of most active glaciation in the world.

This harsh physical environment is plagued with katabatic winds which spring up without warning and roar down glacier valleys at anything up to 80km/h (50mph). The windchill effect can be numbingly serious.

Unlike the Arctic, which is a sea surrounded by land, the Antarctíc is a continent surrounded by sea - the Southern Ocean. Between latitudes 40° to 65°S an uninterrupted wind circulates vigorously to develop into the notorious "roaring forties"' and " furious fifties'- the West Wind Drift. Around the coast there is a contrary cir- culation in the East Wind Drift. The interaction between these winds and sea cur- rents creates a region of turbulence and as a consequence the Southem Ocean is richly productive, its abundant plant and animal plankton supporting large numbers of seals and whales, some of which are slowly recovering from exploitation and abuse. The Southern Ocean also supports many millions of Adelie penguins, for instance.

Most Antarctic life clings to the edge, where beaches and cliffs offer snow-free nesting places for birds and pupping places for seals. Much of it is concentrated on the islands - the sub-Antarctic island and the islands of the Antarctic Peninsula, that last fling of the Andes which extends as a string of islands reaching out into the South Atlantic before swinging round to form a backbone attached to the great Antarctic continent.

The backbone is bordered by a necklace of islands which are home to millions of penguins, petrels and seals in the summer season.

Winter is different story. At the end of March the sun sets on six months of icy darkness. As the sea freezes out from the continent's edge at the rate of five kilo- metres (over three miles) a day, the solid surface doubles. Only Weddell seals and emperor penguins are hardy enough to survive these dark days. Even on the coast the temperature will fall below -40°C. Only the more northern sub-Antarctic islands remain free of sea-ice. Most creatures move north, retuning only when the sun shows its face again in the austral spring.

The Antarctic Convergence :
The Antarctic Convergence is the circumpolar region, conveniently drawn as a line undulating between 50° and 60°S, and well defined by thermometer readings - it is sometimes marked by a localized beld of fog or mist - where the warm, more saline surface currents coming south from the tropics meet the cold, denser and mainly non-saline waters moving north from the Antarctic. These conilicting currents clash, converge and sink. The mixing waters provide a sympathetic environment for an abundance of plankton, so the Convergence nourishes huge seabirds and sea mammals.
Dipl. Ing. Oldrich Bubak



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04/15/2000


Author : Klement Pavel
Spoluautor : Klement Jaroslav
Copyright © 2000 Klement Pavel
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