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CHINA

  • "营商在起步阶段使用免许可频谱,然后在业务见成效后转用经许可的频谱。" (One measure that could be envisaged is, for example, to allow small operators to start operations using licence exempt spectrum, and then move to licensed spectrum when the business case is proved.) ---Best Practice Guidelines for Spectrum Management to Promote Broadband Access (ITU, 2005) available in Chinese.
  • 建设信息社会,缩小数字鸿沟 (Build e-Society, Bridge Digital Divide), Chinese-language presentation by Alcatel's Bi-Shan Ying at a UNITAR E-Administration Training Workshop in Shanghai, 21-25 February 2005
  • "Managing the Complexities of Open Spectrum" - English-language announcement of a lecture by Prof. Haitao Zheng (University of California at Santa Barbara) at Tsinghua University's Research Institute of Information Technology, 15 August 2006.
  • Parts of China's radio frequency allocation table - with footnotes - in English.
  • "Radio Regulations of the People's Republic of China" - English translation of "Decree No. 128," State Council and Central Military Commission, 11 September 1993. "The resources of radio frequency spectrum is owned by the State..." (per Article 4). Here is the Chinese original: 中华人民共和国无线电管理条例(国务院、中央军委 一九九三年九月发布).
  • 中华人民共和国无线电管理条例 [People's Republic of China Radio Regulations], summary in the form of a PRC news release, 25 December 2006, in Chinese.
  • National Radio Spectrum Management Center (in Chinese). You must use Internet Explorer or the pages won't load.
    • 微功率(短距离)无线电设备的技术要求 (Micro Power [Short Range] Wireless Apparatus Specification), 1 October 2005, in Chinese. This supercedes the temporary Micro Power rules mentioned below.
    • "In line with government openness and the science plan," in June-July 2003 the Information Industries Dept. had a public consultation on expanding the temporary Micro Power (Short Distance) Wireless Apparatus rules adopted in 1998. According to an announcement distributed by the XINHUA news agency, Zhou Guangcheng was the official contact for this consultation. The 6th article of the temporary rules said Micro Power devices do "not to have to go through the radio station license formalities, but must accept the radio management administrative body to carry on the essential inspection or test of product performance." Devices covered by this regulation include wireless microphones, remote controls, sensors, alarms and telemetry, ISM devices, toys, garage door openers, hoist cranes, RFID, etc. Frequency ranges are specified for each type of device.
  • "Wireless Communications Equipment and Services in China" by Ronnie Xu, US Department of State, Foreign Commercial Service, 13 January 2004): "WLAN was introduced to the China market in 2001. By the end of 2002 the total size of China's WLAN market was [Renminbi] 141 million with a growth rate of 182 percent... The State Radio Regulation Committee of China, which is under the Ministry of Information Industry (MII), regulates all types of radio and wireless products... [MII] issues a Network Access License for all types of telecommunications network equipment. The NAL is required to ensure that the telecommunications and radio products operate correctly when connected to the national infrastructure... Up to now, China does not have a telecommunications law, though there are many regulations and rules... In general, wireless services have been more closely regulated since the implementation of the telecom regulation... Without a license, no organization or individual is allowed to engage in wireless services..."
  • 关于短距离微功率无线电设备使用 2400MHz 频段有关问题的通知 (Notice on issues related to the use of short-range 2400 MHz band radio equipment - Information Industries Department letter number [2001] 653). This seems to say that license requirements for spread-spectrum WLANs will end on 31 December 2004 and higher power limits (500mW EIRP) will be allowed for point-to-point links in "sparsely inhabited rural areas."
  • "Mr. Li Haiqing [director of MII's Frequency Planning Division] described for us the background to the MII's issuance of the regulation IDW [2001] 653. He explained that the MII recognizes that in keeping with the general trend towards a more open economy, the opening up of unlicensed spectrum will be important. The 2.4 GHz band is the first unlicensed spectrum in China, and indeed the main purpose of the 653 regulation was to open the band. (The next band to be opened will probably be the 5.8 GHz band). Since the government does not have experience with unlicensed bands they wanted to be conservative initially and place a low limit on transmit power [10mW]. He described this as an 'experiment' and they were particularly interested in the reaction of industry... He also indicated that a major reason for their power limitation was a concern over interference from multiple transmitters within dense housing environments common in China. Apparently there have been interference problems from point-to-multipoint systems in the 2.4 [GHz] band operating at levels higher than allowed. When the 653 regulation was issued, the Director General of the Radio Regulatory Department of MII directed them to gather further information that might help them to further refine their policies in this regard. In summary, Mr. Li expressed flexibility on the part of MII with regard to the 653 regulation, and he encouraged us to work with MII to provide them with information that might bear on their further developments in the 2.4 band. In particular they were interested in having us help them establish a testbed within their lab. We are also going to provide them with information regarding other countries' regulations of the 2.4 band as well as information on the use of Wi-Fi within dense environments..." ---"Summary of WECA Meeting with Chinese MII Regulatory Officials - Beijing, China, March 8, 2002" by Greg Ennis, Technical Director of the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (later renamed the Wi-Fi Alliance).
  • "China has increased the transmission power limit for the 2.4 GHz frequency band up to 100 mW. This means that now WLAN applications are allowed in accordance with IEEE 802.11b and that Bluetooth Class i equipment can be certified and commercialised in China." ---Approval News, December 2002.
  • "Fries with that? McDonald’s is rolling out free 2Mbps WiFi across China," by Kaylene Hong, The Next Web, 19 November 2013.
  • "China steps up web monitoring, driving many Wi-Fi users away," by Andrew Jacobs, New York Times, 25 July 2011: "New regulations that require bars, restaurants, hotels and bookstores to install costly Web monitoring software are prompting many businesses to cut Internet access and sending a chill through the capital's game-playing, Web-grazing literati who have come to expect free Wi-Fi with their lattes and green tea. The software, which costs businesses about $3,100, provides public security officials the identities of those logging on to the wireless service of a restaurant, cafe or private school and monitors their Web activity. Those who ignore the regulation and provide unfettered access face a $2,300 fine and the possible revocation of their business license... It is unclear whether the new measures will be strictly enforced or applied beyond the area of central Beijing where they are already in effect... During a survey of more than a dozen businesses on Monday, none said they were prepared to purchase the software, which is designed to handle 100 users at one time..."
  • "China Mobile CEO says Wi-Fi should be default data connection," by Esme Vos, MuniWireless.com, 23 February 2011: "Wang Jianzhou, CEO of China Mobile, [said] to the audience at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona last week that Wi-Fi should be the default for mobile users because smartphones and tablets are killing cellular networks. At the opening keynote, he made the following remarks: Handset makers should embed Wi-Fi and make it the default connection. China Mobile will have 1 million Wi-Fi hotspots in 3 years... Wireless cellular networks will never be able to keep up with mobile data demand and therefore, Wi-Fi must be rolled out in public areas to offload data traffic..."
  • "Shipment of China's WLAN Market Top USD62.42mn," ChinaByte, page 1, 16 February 2007 (via SinoCast): "China's shipment of WLAN (Wireless Local-area Network) equipment touched USD 62.42 million in the first nine months of 2006, said the world-leading IT market consultant IDC... industries, manufacturing, retail and warehousing, along with health care have become the fastest-growing ones in terms of shipment increase, respectively growing by 130% over the same period of the previous year..."
  • "Official upbeat about China's wireless growth," by Li Huayu, China Daily, 21 March 2007, in English: "The global market for wireless local area network (WLAN) will grow at more than 40 percent annually in the next few years and China will remain the engine to drive this growth, according to an official with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)..."
  • "China's Telecom Reorganization and Wireless City Process Drive Rapid Development of WLAN Market," CCID Consulting press release (in English), 23 September 2008: "...the sales revenue of China's WLAN market in 2008H1 reached 1.38 billion Yuan, up 31.4% year-on-year. By the end of June, 2008, China's hotspots reached 10,000, covering 110 cities. More than 30 cities have incorporated wireless cities in their strategic infrastructure planning. CCID Consulting forecasts that... by the end of 2008, China's WLAN market will reach 2.8 billion Yuan..."
  • "Interview: Shenzhou Unicom taking wireless city project to 25 cities," by Iris Hong, China Business News (Interfax), 28 April 2008.
  • "Beijing citywide Wi-Fi by the end of 2011" by Esme Vos, MuniWireless, 21 January 2011: "The South China Morning Post (SCMP) reports that Beijing Mobile, a subsidiary of China Mobile, is setting up a citywide network that will provide Wi-Fi throughout its 600 square kilometers within the fifth ring road, as well as in town centers in the suburban areas... SCMP also says that other cities (Shenzhen, Tianjin, Shanghai and Guangzhou) are working on extending Wi-Fi coverage. China Mobile's CEO has revealed in the past few weeks that the company is going into the Wi-Fi market and is looking to acquire companies in that space."
  • "Beijing to offer free Wi-Fi in six areas," by Wu Di, Beijing Daily in English, 23 February 2012: "...China's three telecom giants - China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom - will provide 2Mbps public wideband services at Xidan, Wangfujing, the Olympic Center, Yansha (including areas in Sanlitun and Chaoyang Park), Zhonguancun and the Financial Street... People in the six places will get access to free high-speed Wi-Fi services through mobile phones by searching for the wireless network named 'My Beijing,' users can log in with their mobile phone numbers and then a password will be sent to them via a short message. The municipal government will invest heavily in large WLAN construction projects and targets a coverage rate of more than 60 percent over the next five years, according to Beijing's current five-year plan on urban informatization and information infrastructure projects. Wireless services in those public spaces will be paid by the municipal government."
  • "China Telecom aims for 1m WiFi hotspots," by Shen Jingting, China Daily, 11 May 2011: "...The current number of China Telecom WiFi hotspots is 300,000, and most of them are located in South China, He said. The company plans to roll out an additional 400,000 WiFi hotspots this year and these are expected to reach a target of 1 million next year. China's three telecom carriers have adopted an aggressive attitude towards WiFi network deployment this year. Analysts said surging data traffic in smartphones forces telecom companies to look for ways to relieve pressure on their 3G networks..."
  • "China Telecom's Chongqing Telecom builds massive smart Wi-Fi infrastructure throughout China's largest city with Ruckus Wireless," Ruckus Wireless press release, 31 January 2011: "Chongqing Telecom has now deployed over 4,000 Ruckus ZoneFlex indoor and outdoor Smart Wi-Fi access points (APs)... Situated in the southwestern mainland China with a population of 31 million people and covering 31,800 square miles, Chongqing is one of four direct-controlled municipalities by the People's Republic of China – the largest province in China. The Ruckus Smart Wi-Fi APs now cover hundreds of hot zones within five districts and have been installed in a wide range of locations spanning from universities to restaurants, office buildings to shopping centers and public venues..."
  • "Wi-Fi Alliance to Sponsor First China Wi-Fi Summit in Beijing this September" - WiFi Alliance press release, 9 April 2007: "The Wi-Fi Alliance, worldwide industry trade association for wireless LAN, has announced that the first annual China Wi-Fi Summit will be held on 26-27 September, 2007. This event further signals the significant growth of the Wi-Fi market, with an installed base of three hundred million users and a worldwide growth rate of 25% per year. Chinese firms are increasingly developing equipment for the world Wi-Fi market, as well as the Chinese market. The size of the China market for networking equipment is expected to exceed RMB10.3 billion next year... To learn more about the event, please visit http://www.conference.cn/wi-fi..."
  • "2008年全球Wi-Fi芯片总出货量将破10亿块大关" (Cumulative global volume of Wi-Fi chips to break one billion mark in 2008) - Chinese-language summary of a press release from ABI Research: "More than a Billion Wi-Fi Chipsets to Ship in 2012" (13 February 2007).
  • "全球Wi-Fi热点去年下半年增长近五成" (Global Wi-Fi hotspot growth in the second half of last year was nearly 50%) - Chinese-language summary of a press release from ABI Research: "Wi-Fi Hotspots Forecasted to Increase by 47% in 2006" (2 November 2006).
  • "Beijing Eyes Wi-Fi for Olympics," by Peter Purton, Red Herring, 29 May 2007, in English: "Wireless Internet takes center stage as 3G fails to impress... Chinese carrier CECT-Chinacomm is planning to build a 275-square-kilometer wireless Internet network in Beijing, part of the country's effort to showcase its development during the 2008 summer Olympics. The network, a mesh of Wi-Fi and WiMAX wireless technologies, will create a city-wide hotspot covering 90 percent of major streets and 20 percent of residences, as well as hotels, the airport, shopping centers, entertainment areas and tourist areas in China's capital..."
  • Danwei Guide's directory of free wireless Internet hotspots in Beijing, Kunming, Shanghai and Xiamen.
  • "Shanghai: first citywide WiFi net in China" 24 October 2006.
  • "Shanghai Initiates Wi-Fi Construction," China RFID News, 21 January 2008: "Shanghai Jiading Wireless City Cooperation Agreement is the first wireless city program signed by the government... China Comm will be responsible for the construction, which involves about 200-300 Wi-Fi base stations around the district..."
  • "ALONG Mobile Technologies Creates the First Wi-Fi City in China," PR Newswire, 6 February 2007: "ALONG Mobile Technologies Inc., a leading provider of wireless interactive entertainment products and services to customers in China, today announced that it will commit itself to transforming Xi'an (a city with a population of more than 7 million, and which is also a Hi-Tech Development Zone in the western part of China) into a 'Wi-Fi City.' ALONG will accomplish this by relying on its existing downloading terminal backbone network in the city and by increasing the number of Wi-Fi launchers by more than 1000 in key spots such as in universities, the railway station, and the airport in 2007..."
  • "Shenzhen Metro Deploys Cisco Unified Wireless Solution," by Anuradha Shukla, TMCnet, 1 October 2007: "The Cisco solution is based on WiFi technology... As the Passenger Information System can transmit a high-definition digitally encoded signal in real time from the central control room to moving trains, passengers can watch high-quality digital TV programs on the LCDs in each carriage and receive news, weather reports or emergency evacuation alert messages. Additionally, subway drivers can understand the situation of the station platforms as well as that inside the moving cabin, through the video display. This helps ensure the safety of the metro operations..."
  • "A partnership with Coordinate Technologies Communication Limited (CTCL), a systems integrator, establishes bilateral Wi-Fi roaming services with CTCL's major Chinese carrier customers - China Mobile, China Netcom and China Telecom. For the first time, this will open up 3,000 Chinese hotspots to travellers visiting the country, as well as allowing Chinese consumers themselves access to global Wi-Fi networks when they are on business abroad... With 95% share of the Chinese telecoms market, China Mobile, China Netcom and China Telecom, are the country's major telcos, currently operating 3,000 hotspots at key strategic locations including 43 airports, hundreds of hotels and retail sites, convention centres, offices, and coffee bars including all Starbucks locations in Beijing. The number of Wi-Fi hotspots and Chinese business Wi-Fi subscribers are set to increase significantly over the next 12 months as a result of the considerable investment... in China and the explosive demand from Chinese businesses for Wi-Fi services... CTCL has anticipated that the numbers of hotspots could grow to over 9,000 within the next 12 months... deregulation of the Chinese telecoms market [is] due by 2008..." ---from "Quiconnect opens up the Asian Wi-Fi market for its international telecoms customers," Quiconnect press release, 23 May 2007.
  • "Relaxation of Wi-Fi Restriction Could Remove IPhone Obstacle," Shanghai Daily, 25 June 2009 (via CRI.org): "China has relaxed a long-term restriction on Wi-Fi functions on mobile phones, which will improve the mobile Internet experience and boost sales of smart handsets, Shanghai Daily learned on Wednesday... The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has told related companies to send models for market-entry tests. The models must support WAPI, and optionally Wi-Fi... WAPI and Wi-Fi can be swapped through software so it won't cost much more for handset makers to launch these phones in China..."
  • "HotZone Duo Passes CERNET's Stringent Certification and Testing for Comprehensive Public Access Coverage Supporting IPv6," Motorola press release, 25 August 2004: "China Education and Research Network (CERNET) has selected Motorola's HotZone Duo solution to provide public access for three campuses. These three universities were selected as part of the pilot for CERNET's campus Wi-Fi initiative... CERNET's deployment of HotZone Duo will allow teachers, students and researchers ubiquitous wireless access to online courses, research, educational tools and a breadth of communication possibilities from anywhere on campus..."
  • "China Telecom Will Initiate Wi-Fi Bidding In 21 Chinese Provinces," China RFID News, 12 March 2008: "China Telecom will initiate a new round of bidding in the 21 provinces in southern China to speed up the development of Wi-Fi base stations... It had already constructed Wi-Fi networks in seven provinces, including Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Fujian and Sichuan, on a trial basis last year..."
  • 欢迎进入Wi-Fi无限世界专题_科技时代_新浪网 - Wi-fi news page at tech.sina.com.cn (all in Chinese).
  • "China to Launch National Wireless LAN Standard WAPI," AsiaPulse via COMTEX and TMCnet.com, 8 January 2009: "China Mobile and China Telecom have requested wireless network equipment manufacturers to ensure their products to be compatible with WAPI (WLAN Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure) function when bidding for [access points]. In the meantime, China's top three telecom operators decided to transform their WiFi hotspots constructed previously to WAPI..."
  • "China's New WLAN/WAPI Standards," PRC Telecoms, Media & Technology Newsletter, (PDF version in English) 23 December 2003: "Announcement Regarding the Implementation of Mandatory National WLAN Standards" (Decree No. 110/2003) said that from 1 June 2004, all Wi-fi products sold in China must use an encryption standard that only a few Chinese companies were "authorized to license." Foreign equipment suppliers and the US Government protested, and on 21 April 2004, implementation of the decree was "delayed indefinitely." See PRCMTN's update: "Technical Standards with Chinese Characteristics: WAPI, RFID and Mobile DTT," (PDF version in English) 30 April 2004. Then on 9 December 2004, FierceWireless reported that "the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) acknowledged WAPI as a standard along with 802.11i. The move means that China can move forward with its original WAPI plans..." This was first reported by Zhang Kai Feng (in Chinese), who added that "WAPI still [may] hopefully became the international standard."
  • "Experts Say China's Wireless Networks Can Be Easily Hacked," by Komfie Manalo, BizReport, 12 September 2006: "According to Wang Yumin, professor with Xi'an Electronic Science and Technology University, the wireless products being distributed in China were all imported and do not meet security requirements. He is suggesting the country to develop its own wireless products and standards to guarantee security of the network and information."
  • "MII Asks Intel To Support WAPI," ChinaTechNews.com, 30 March 2007: "Lou Qinjian, deputy minister of China's Ministry of Information Industry, said at the signing ceremony for Intel's new factory in Dalian that MII has asked Intel to support China's WAPI to become an international standard. WAPI is China's national wireless standard. Currently the WAPI alliance faces a rough road in becoming an international standard, which according to a representative from the WAPI Standard Work Team is mainly due to the pressure from the IEEE... Industry professionals believe that if Intel is willing to give a hand, it will be easier for WAPI to successfully become an international standard..."
  • "China home-grown WAPI standards for WLAN devices likely to gain momentum," by Irene Chen and Steve Shen, DigiTimes, 6 January 2009: "China Telecom reportedly is in talks with the China-based WAPI Industry Alliance for cooperation with an aim to introduce... value-added services that will combine 3G and WLAN applications, said the sources.... Taiwan-based network equipment maker AzureWave Technologies recently launched in Beijing a SiP (system in package) module as well as other mobile solutions supporting WAPI standards... Atheros Communications is reportedly ready to develop WAPI chipsets for handheld devices as the company has already produced WLAN chips supporting WAPI technology for notebooks, the sources remarked. Broadcom is also currently evaluating the possibility of developing WAPI-enabled solutions..."
  • "China's Compliance Requirements for WLAN Products," by Grace Lin, Evaluation Engineering, August 2004.
  • "China's Post-WTO Technology Policy: Standards, Software, and the Changing Nature of Techno-Nationalism" by Richard P. Suttmeier and Yao Xiangkui, National Bureau of Asian Research, May 2004. WAPI in a broader techno-policy context.
  • The work of the China Wireless Telecommunication Standards Group is guided by the Ministry of Information Industry. Their website is in Chinese, but the Broadband Wireless IP Standards Group has a few English-language webpages.
  • "China to adopt four measures to boost Internet of things development," TMCnet.com, 1 April 2010: "China will take four measures to support telecom operators to initiate innovation and application of the Internet of things technology, so as to boost the industry's development, said Wen Ku, director of the Department of Science and Technology of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)... Second, a national development plan for Internet of things will be constituted, which will focus on the development of terminals, equipment, software and information services related to the Internet of things, such as high-end sensor, MEMS, smart sensor, and ultra-high-frequency RFID..."
  • "NFC emerges as best choice for mobile payment standard," SinoCast Daily Business Beat (via InfoTech Spotlight), 24 June 2010: "After working out specific regulations on third-party mobile payment, the Chinese authority has been in pursuit of a national industry standard for mobile payment. But as the three major Chinese telecom carriers have chosen their side by adopting China UnionPay's UFC, the result has become evident... China has been struggling between the 2.4GHz RF-SIM and the 13.56MHz NFC. If it adopts RF-SIM, most Chinese mobile phone users will simply need to replace their SIM cards to realize mobile payment, but RF-SIM has trouble working with existing POS terminals. And it will cost too much for the country to set up a new POS network. NFC is fully compatible with current POS terminals, but it requires handset users to replace their mobile phones... Chinese bank-card network China UnionPay announced last month that it had formed a Mobile Payment Industry Alliance that includes 18 national and local banks and supports international contactless standards as it keeps up the pressure on China Mobile Ltd.'s RF-SIM-based payment scheme..."
  • "WiMAX at the Great Wall," Research on Asia Group, September 2006: "WiMAX operators need not to acquire a license as WiMAX service uses [exempt] frequencies... Currently, MII bans WiFi service in hotspot areas, therefore WiFi service still needs some time to become popular in China. If WiMAX operators actively pursue the dissemination of WiMAX service using this time gap, they might be able to secure the wireless broadband market targeting business user groups in the east coastal area..."
  • "Yankee Group Explores WiMAX Progress In China: 2007 to 2011," by X. J. Wang, Microwave Journal, 18 May 2007: "WiMAX, particularly mobile WiMAX development, is still in the early stage in China. We don't anticipate that China will have meaningful WiMAX development until 2009... China's Ministry of Information Industry (MII) has yet to allocate mobile WiMAX spectrum, which is crucial for mobile WiMAX development in China. This also signals to the industry that MII has yet to make up its mind about mobile WiMAX development in China... We believe reallocating the 2.5-GHz band to mobile WiMAX could generate broader industrial value than its current application because of the global development of the WiMAX ecosystem. However, SARFT, another regulatory body focusing on China's media industry, regulates the 2.5-GHz spectrum. MII and SARFT have to reach an agreement before MII can reallocate 2.5 GHz to mobile WiMAX. Although it's challenging for MII to reallocate spectrum resources that are under other ministry's supervision, it can be done. The successful reallocation of the military's 800-MHz spectrum for China Unicom's CDMA network is a good example. Regardless, reallocation of 2.5 GHz - whether by MII or SARFT - will be very challenging..."
  • "RFID Frequency Test to Be Completed in China," China TechZone (produced by the US Information Technology Office in Beijing), 29 June 2006: "Sources say that since the late half of last year, China's frequency regulatory organs have been conducting tests on the RFID frequency resources used in the country. The tests focus on frequency resource utilization situation and inter-network interferences... Typical RFID working frequencies include: 125KHz, 13.56MHz, 902MHz-928MHz, 2.45GHz, etc. Among them, 125KHz and 13.56MHz frequencies are the most popular ones: they involve less cost, have wider applications and attract many domestic enterprises..."
  • "中国无线通信频谱规划RFID频率已确定" (Plans to determine RFID frequencies in China), RFID China, 9 June 2006, in Chinese: 15 ministries have compiled and released a white paper entitled "China's Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology Policy" putting China's RFID industry on a rapid development track.
  • "RFID market growing fast in China," by Cai Yan, EE Times, 11 May 2007: "China's radio frequency ID market will hit $335 million in 2007, increasing more than 50 percent from last year. Similar increases are expected during the next three years. The up-tick in momentum comes from the maturity of the technology, continuous government support for RFID standardization, dropping prices of RFID chips and equipment, as well as increasing acceptance by end users, according to Beijing-based CCW Research, a government-linked consulting company. Incremental demand is also expected from the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. In 2006, tags accounted for 66.3 percent of the RFID market; RFID readers accounted for 19.5 percent; and software and services 14.2 per cent. Software and services is expected to increase its share of the market in the coming years, said Weifeng Sun, an analyst from CCW Research. The major application for RFID is in resident ID cards in China. Market researcher In-Stat estimates that more than one billion ID cards to be issued before the end of 2008 and believes more than 2.9 billion tags will be shipped by 2009..."
  • "RFID In China - From Human ID to Product ID," In-stat Research Service, February 2006. From the abstract: "The issuance of an RFID tag inlaid resident ID card by the Ministry of Public Security to over 1.3 billion people starting in 2004, is one of the biggest RFID projects in the world. Beginning in 2008, In-Stat sees RFID tags used for articles exceeding those used for resident ID cards, making the retail industry the biggest consumer of tags, with about 1 billion in 2009. Logistics and supply chain are the second biggest area, with about 400 million tags in 2009..."
  • "China National RFID Industrialization Base Opens In Zhangjiang," ChinaTechNews.com, 29 October 2006: "China's first National RFID Industrial Zone has formally opened in the Zhangjiang area of Shanghai. The zone will be the largest RFID industry congregation center in China with an annual production capacity of 500 billion tags..."
  • "China Vertical RFID Solution 2006-2010 Forecast and Analysis" by Freda Tong, IDC, October 2006: "The RFID vertical industry application market was estimated at US$180.12 million [RMB 1.477 billion] in China in 2005, in which UHF RFID application accounted for only 10.6% at US$19.1 million [RMB 156 million]. IDC predicts that by 2010, revenue will reach US$3.64 [billion] [RMB 29.837 billion], with a 2005-2010 compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 82.4%. UHF RFID application revenue will reach US$1.06 [billion] by 2010, and its 2005-2010 CAGR is forecast at 123.1%..."
  • "More tickets to use RFID tech," People's Daily (in English), 8 October 2010: "An increase in tourism and large-scale events, such as the Expo 2010 Shanghai and the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, has created a sudden growth in demand for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tickets, industry experts have said... The number of tourists in the country is estimated to reach 3.3 billion by 2015, the China National Tourism Administration has said. In addition, the number of event visitors is expected to reach 500 million. These two industries will become the main consumers of RFID entrance tickets... China Golddeal Investment's chairman, Zhang Xu, said he expected RFID technology will be used in 80 percent of entrance tickets in five years... The domestic RFID market reached 7.36 billion yuan ($1.10 billion) in 2009, research by CCID Consulting Co Ltd said..."
  • 研制无线电发射设备的管理规定(附英文) (The Regulation of Radio Transmitting Equipment), text in Chinese and English, National Radio Management Committee, 24 March 1995.
  • China's IT & Telecoms Legislation (3 volumes, TransAsia Publishing Ltd., 1999, 2001 and 2004: "undoubtedly the standard reference work for information of Chinese media regulations" (reviewed by James F. Paradise).
  • "SDR takes early steps in China," Telecoms.com, 19 November 2007: "The fact that China has pioneered its own 3G standard, TD-SCDMA, makes the country a natural test bed for SDR, because customers using that technology will also need their handsets to be capable of accessing more widely deployed 2G and 3G networks in areas where TD-SCDMA is not yet available... NXP, formerly known as Philips Semiconductors, noted that its EVP technology can be used to add wifi, WiMAX and Bluetooth to devices without requiring additional modems and antennas, in addition to offering compatibility with multiple cellular network standards..."
  • Opportunities for WLAN and WISP in China by Jonas Clausen (69 pages in English, 8 July 2002).
  • China Academy of Telecommunication Research - in addition to conducting research which becomes the basis for national regulation, organizing China's ITU-related activities, and testing/certifying telecommunications equipment, CATR provides "comprehensive information and analysis reports of regulatory policies, emerging technologies, status and development trends of service and market in the global telecom field for government, enterprises, colleges and all sectors of the society."
  • "中国国家无线电监测中心主任刘岩致词" (Speech by Dr. Liu Yan, director of China's State Radio Monitoring Center, at the UWB Global Summit) in Beijing, 12 October 2006. Excerpts, translated from Chinese: UWB and traditional wireless communication technologies are vastly different. UWB gives us a new concept of radio resource availability, so we need to carefully study its new features, band sharing techniques, its impact on the organization of the spectrum, and how to avoid interference. China attaches great importance to the development of UWB. On the basis of our studies we have developed a UWB spectrum management model and recommendations for the ITU-R Task Group on UWB.
  • 新兴无线联网技术扑面而来, 本土企业面临绝佳商机 - Zigbee page at EETimes China, by Richard Zhang.
  • "Terocelo and Beijing Institute of Technology Sign Joint Development Agreement for Home Gateway Communications Network," BusinessWire, 18 June 2007: "...'We believe that incorporation of Lycon's True Software Radio® technology into our Home Gateway Communications Product project will result in a commercial product that is not only functionally robust, but is also a very cost effective solution. Utilizing one radio technology to provide several communications interfaces is a significant technological advancement. Additionally, software upgradeability provides valuable product flexibility,' said Dr. Cao Yuanda, Chief Professor, School of Software, Beijing Institute of Technology..."

Hong Kong

  • "HK to provide wireless internet services in public places," Xinhua News Agency via People's Daily, 26 May 2007: "A multi-million program to provide wireless internet services in government premises is approved Friday by the Hong Kong Legislative Council for improving internet services... Under the program, Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) facilities will be set up at about 350 government premises for free use by the public in the coming two years. And Wi-Fi services in priority sites, such as libraries and community halls, will be provided by mid 2008..."
  • "Hong Kong gov't goes wireless," by Patrick Frater, Variety Asia Online, 10 December 2007: "The Hong Kong gov't is to provide free wireless Internet throughout the territory and Friday appointed PCCW-HKT Network Services as contractor. Gov't aims to make Broadband Internet accessible to all citizens whether at home or on the move... Gov't estimates that Hong Hong will have over 8,000 wireless hotspots - free and paid for - by mid 2009..."
  • "Hong Kong Spends HK$200 Million On Wi-Fi Construction," China RFID News, 18 February 2008: "Hong Kong's Office of the Telecommunications Authority says the government has decided to invest HK$200 million in the coming two years on the construction of Wi-Fi facilities, which will be provided to users free of charge... As of January 30, 2008, there were 4144 registered Wi-Fi hotspots in Hong Kong..."
  • "New 3G service set for Nov. in Hong Kong," Xinhua (via China View in English, 30 January 2008: "Last year also saw a massive rollout of public WiFi networks - the hotspot number has exceeded 6,400 serving more than 4,100 locations. Coupled with the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) government's commitment to install 3,000 WiFi access points at 350 government premises by the end of 2009, public WiFi services will continue to expand..."
  • "...the Government launched a consultation in March [2006] on a proposal of merging the Telecommunications Authority (TA) and the Broadcasting Authority (BA) to establish a Communications Authority (CA) as a unified regulator for the electronic communications sector... The existing statutory powers and functions of the TA and BA would be transferred to the new authority. The consultation will end by mid-2006. Subject to the outcome of the consultation, it is planned to introduce to the Legislative Council the enabling legislation to establish the CA by end 2006..." ---"Update on Regulatory and Policy Developments - Hong Kong, China - Position as at 11 April 2006," prepared for APEC TEL meeting number 33.
  • M. H. Au, OFTA's Director-General of Telecommunications, reported in September 2006 that Hong Kong had 743 registered public WiFi access points and comprehensive (city-wide) WiFi network coverage was under consideration. He noted that a "carrier licence" is necessary for the provision of public data access services, even when the service uses frequencies that are license-free. See "Regulatory Environment for Wireless Data Communications," speech by M. H. Au before the Communications Association of Hong Kong, 29 September 2006.
  • Consultancy Report - Spectrum Policy Review, Ovum/Indepen/Aegis, 2006
  • "Public Consultation on Proposed Spectrum Policy Framework," Hong Kong Commerce, Industry and Technology Bureau, 25 October 2006.
  • "Hong Kong radio law ruled unconstitutional," by Patrick Frater, Variety, 8 January 2008: "...The law gives the territory's chief executive sole discretion over radio licenses. Without any mechanism for review, the law was described by magistrate Douglas Yau as giving the chief exec 'unfettered and unchecked power.' As that infringes on laws on free speech as laid out in Hong Kong's constitution, the magistrate ruled it unconstitutional... the government will appeal his ruling on constitutionality..."
  • "Licensing of Telecommunication Services in Hong Kong," TA, 22 March 1995: "Under section 8 of the [Telecommunication Ordinance (Cap. 106)], no person shall establish or maintain any means of telecommunication unless an appropriate licence from the Governor in Council or the Telecommunications Authority ("TA") is first obtained... [But] Section 39 of the Ordinance allows the Governor in Council to exempt any person or any class of persons from licensing... Importantly, the Exemption Orders do not exempt any person from the obligation to hold a licence where the apparatus is used by him for the purpose of providing a service to the public by any means of telecommunication. The test for licensing a service connected to public networks is therefore whether a provision of a service to the public is involved..."
  • 《電訊條例》(條例)第39條制定2005年電訊(電訊器具)(豁免領牌)(修訂)令(載於附件A) (in Chinese) - "Legislative Council Brief: Telecommunications (Telecommunications Apparatus)(Exemption from Licensing) (Amendment) Order 2005" in English: RFID equipment, mobile satellite terminals, WLANs in the 5470-5725 MHz band, automobile radar systems in the 76-77 GHz band, and radio-control devices for model aircraft, were all added to the list of radio devices exempt from licensing in Hong Kong, effective 15 April 2005.
  • OFTA's Class Licences webpage, with links to public announcements and license conditions for Citizen Band Radio, wired and wireless In-Building Telecommunication Services, and Class Licences for the Provision of Public Wireless Local Area Network Services. A January 2003 Telecommunications Authority press release says, "Any person who intends to operate a public wireless LAN service is only required to register with the TA before commencing operation. No application and processing procedures will be involved, unlike individual licences. No licence fee will be levied either... The Class Licence only applies to operators of public wireless LAN services, but not end users for private use. End users may use the same frequency bands without licensing...." 類別牌照 提供公共無線區域網絡服務 - Hong Kong's WLAN Class License Ordinance in Chinese. Other low-power devices also became exempt from licensing on 21 February 2003.
  • "WiMAX Spectrum Overview and Possible Spectrum in China," by Yuan Yuan, Regulations and Standards for Wireless Communication, 30 May 2007, in English: "There were discussions in the Radio Spectrum Advisory Committee (RSAC) in March 2004 on the frequency allocations for WiMAX systems in Hong Kong... WiMAX equipment can readily be operated in the license exempted 2.4 GHz and 5GHz bands provided that they meet the technical conditions given in the Exemption Order... "
  • "The Opening of Citizens Band for Public Use" - OFTA press release in English, 20 January 2006: "Users should be aware that CB radios are prohibited for transmission at indoor locations under the Class Licence. This is to avoid possible interference to the reception of Cable TV signals..."
  • "The Open Channels." In 1994, OFTA set aside 15 channels in the VHF band (near 70 MHz and 149 MHz) for direct simplex communication between mobile stations. In 1996, 7 more channels were added, bring the total to 22. Any mobile station with a Mobile Radiocommunication Service License, including handheld portables, may use any Open Channel - except for stations operating under a Public Radiocommunication Service Licence. Base stations cannot use these channels.
  • "Managing Radio Spectrum: Present and New Approaches" - powerpoint presentation by Danny K. C. Lau, Office of the Telecommunications Authority, 15 February 2005.

Macau

  • Wi-fi came to Macau "during 2003. The existing Internet License has been updated to cover Wi-Fi commercial operation, in order to cope with this fast growing technology. Licensed ISPs can operate Wi-Fi networks in public areas such as airport, hotels, café as well as convention centres. The standard being adopted is IEEE 802.11(b,g), with maximum power output of 100mW..." ---from "Voluntary Report of Macao, China - Policy and Regulatory Update," by Kong Ming Yan, 30th meeting of the APEC Telecommunications and Information Working Group, Singapore, September 2004.
  • "Despacho do Chefe do Executivo n.º 318/2006 - Equipamentos de radiocomunicação de reduzida potência e pequeno alcance que estão dispensados da autorização governamental" (Dispatch from the Chief Executive No. 318/2006 - Radiocommunication devices of reduced power and limited range which are exempt from governmental authorization), 24 October 2006, in Portuguese. This lists the types of devices, their allowed operating frequencies and power limits. It includes 2.4GHz WiFi and RLANs in the 5725-5850 MHz band, but only for private use inside a building or campus (power limit = 100mW EIRP). Networks for public use are subject to the regulator's "homologation" process. Other devices exempt from "governmental authorization" include cordless phones, remote controllers, wireless microphones, alarm systems and RFID in the 13.553-13.567 MHz and 920-925 MHz bands.
  • "Free public Wi-Fi at 34 places tomorrow," Macau Daily Times, 28 June 2010: "Free public Wi-Fi service will be available on trial starting tomorrow at 34 locations across the territory. The first phase of the trial include locations at various museums, such as the Taipa Houses Museum, the Museum of Macao, the Macao Museum of Art and the Museum of Taipa and Coloane; at public parks such as in Guia Hill, Taipa's Flower City, Cheok Van's barbecue area and in Areia Preta; at libraries run by the Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau and the Cultural Affairs Bureau; at Friendship Square, Senado Square and Tap Seac Square, as well as at the Telecommunications Bureau and the lobby of the Cultural Centre. Wi-Fi service can be accessed from 8am to 1am, through either non-encrypted or encrypted connections... Wi-Fi access for each user will be disconnected automatically after 45 minutes. Operating data and opinion will be collected for the preparation of the second phase that consists of another 49 Wi-Fi location. The special Wi-Fi service website will also be launched tomorrow at www.wifi.gov.mo..."
  • "Macao's free WiFi service expands to 83 locations," Xinhua News Agency (via China Daily, in English), 18 July 2011: "Macao's free wireless Internet access is set to be increased by 23 places Monday, making the 'WiFi-GO' service available in a total of 83 places around the city, the Macao Post Daily reported on Monday. The newspaper quoted a statement by the city's Telecommunications Regulation Bureau (DSRT) as saying that the new access points were mainly covering the city's recreation areas, public squares, government offices and health clinics and sports venues. According to the statement, the government's free 'WiFi-GO' service had been accessed 630,000 times since its launch September last year to cover public places like libraries, border checkpoints, parks and museums... The service is available from 8 a.m. to 1 a.m. every day."
  • "Macau Casinos Use RFID to Authenticate Chips" by Claire Swedberg, RFID Journal, 7 December 2006.
  • "Gaming Partners International Introduces Casino Currency Products with Embedded EurasiaTrak 13.56 MHz RFID Technology," press release, 21 June 2007: "...GPI was first contacted about this technology by Sociedade de Jogos de Macau ('SJM')... [which is now testing] this new technology for its 18 casinos..."
  • "Despacho do Chefe do Executivo N° 111/2005" (19 April 2005) in Portuguese: "Walkie-Talkies" operating in the 409.7500 - 409.9875 MHz band, with EIRP of 820mW or less, do not need a license.

Asia & Pacific - Regional Overview