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FINLAND

  • "The whole sector does not see a need for spectrum trading. We have no license fees, only moderate spectrum usage fees and no bad shortage of spectrum. It is not on anyone's agenda in the near future," Martin Andersson, chairman of the telecom regulator FICORA, told PolicyTracker ("Nordic spectrum round up: Will Finland be left behind?" 23 February 2005 - paid access only).
  • "Spectrum trading might decline communications services," 1 December 2005, Ministry of Transport and Communications: "At the meeting of the European Union telecommunications ministers on 1 December in Brussels... Ms Susanna Huovinen, Minister of Transport and Communications of Finland, stresses the importance to discuss the spectrum management in the European level. The development of information and communications technology sector can be promoted by efficient and flexible spectrum policy. However, Minister Huovinen says that the trading alternative involves a risk that spectrum will concentrate in the hands of only a few players and there will be speculation in the radio spectrum markets..."
  • "Luvasta vapaiden radiolähettimien yhteistaajuuksista ja käytöstä" - FICORA 15 W/2006 M, in Finnish; "Collective frequencies for radio transmitters exempted from licensing and on their use" in English, effective from 3 August 2006. Applies to cordless phones, GSM handsets, CB radios, radio remote controls, nonspecific short-range devices, automatic railway identification equipment, RLANs/WLANs, RFID, motion detectors and alarms, FM microbroadcasting devices, VSAT terminals, etc. RLANs/WLANs can only use the kind of antenna with which they were type accepted.
  • "Testing of Cognitive Radio systems possible," FICORA press release, 22 December 2009 in English: "In Finland, testing of Cognitive Radio systems will be possible from the beginning of 2010. In accordance with the Government's new frequency allocation plan, Cognitive Radio systems will be allowed to use the frequency range of 470-790 MHz so that they do not interfere with other radio communications..."
  • "Mobiililaajakaistapalvelujen kehittäminen joukkoliikenteessä" [The development of mobile broadband services in public transport], Ministry of Transport and Communications, 2005, in Finnish.
  • "Open wireless networks can be freely accessed," by Esa Mäkinen, Helsingin Sanomat (international edition, in English), 12 September 2007: "...prosecutor Antti Pihlajamäki, who is familiar with information technology crime.... says that no [Finnish] law actually forbids the use of an unprotected network. Using a freely available network does not even constitute a break-in: an open network is literally open... In Britain, using someone else's wireless network without permission has been against the law since 2003..."
  • "Helsinki opens free wireless Internet network," Helsingin Sanomat (international edition, in English), 22 September 2006: "...15 base stations maintained by the city already exist in downtown Helsinki. Moreover, the city is to open another 60 to 70 WLAN base stations by the end of the current year. Wireless Internet access at no cost is available to anyone with a laptop computer with a WLAN card in downtown Helsinki, both outdoors and in several public spaces including city libraries and cultural centres... Helsinki's policy is to set up base stations only in libraries and other public spaces... free WLAN connections will be available also in about 20 buses and trams... Helsinki was criticised for foot-dragging in developing a wireless WLAN network, as Oulu, Lahti, and Turku already had a number of wireless Internet base stations donated by municipal authorities..."
  • "Finnish licence financing 'obsolete'," Advanced Television, 25 April 2002: "Licence financing for public service television is now being questioned in Finland. Kimmo Sasi, Conservative Minister for Communications, and thus in charge of television, stated his belief that licence financing of the country's public service broadcaster, YLE, is about to become obsolete. 'With all the new transmission technologies in view I can well foresee a development whereby YLE might transform itself to a system of pay-TV services, where viewers pay just for what they want to watch.' The time perspective for Sasi is, however, rather distant: an implementation of such a pay TV system could, according to Sasi, happen in ten to twenty years..."
  • Centre for Wireless Communications at the University of Oulu.
  • "Unlicensed radio spectrum: case WLAN" by Timo Ralli and "Unlicensed reuse of licensed spectrum: case UWB" by Aki Silvennoinen - two short papers prepared for an autumn 2004 seminar on Regulatory Issues in Mobile Networks, led by Prof. Heikki Hämmäinen at Helsinki University of Technology's Networking Laboratory.
  • "Digita and Siemens to build wireless broadband network covering entire Finland," Newsroom Finland, 9 October 2006: "...The network is to use the 450-megahertz frequency, freed in 2002 when Sonera discontinued its analogue Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) 450 network...."
  • "New easy-to-use and safe NFC-enabled services from Elisa," company press release, 22 May 2007: "Elisa is the first operator in the Nordic and Baltic countries to test Near Field Communication technology (NFC technology) where a SIM card is used as a security platform..."

Europe - Regional Overview