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  • "El Congreso de Guatemala analizará un proyecto de reforma de la ley de telecomunicaciones," (Guatemala's Congress will analyze a project of reform of the law of telecommunications) by Teresa Agrasot, Asociación Hispanoamericana de Centros de Investigación y Empresas de Telecomunicaciones (in Spanish), 6 September 2006. This report suggests only minor revisions dealing with mobile telephone billing and operators' treatment of stolen handsets. But it could become something larger...
  • "No existe espectro disponible en las banda de 2,4 GHz, y parcialmente en las banda de 5,7 GHz, bandas que son utilizadas con mayor frecuencia en el mundo para aplicaciones inalámbricas, sin licenciamiento. El Reto." (No available spectrum exists in the band of 2.4 GHz and in part of the 5.7 GHz band, bands which are most frequently used globally for license exempt wireless applications. The challenge." ---from "La Liberalización del Espectro Radioeléctrico" (The liberalization of the radioelectric spectrum) by Jorge Kunigami, powerpoint presentation at a conference on "Convergence or Competition? Radio Spectrum Management in Guatemala and Central America," Universidad Francisco Marroquin, Guatemala, 10 June 2005. Jorge Kunigami is former head of Peru's telecom regulatory authority. We have heard from residents of Guatemala that if you want to set up a WiFi network in your home, you must first contact and get permission from the owner of the 2.4 GHz TUF in your area (see next item for explanation of TUF).
  • "Guatemala: Legalize indigenous community radio," Cultural Survival, 3 November 2010: "...Despite promises made in the Guatemalan Constitution and the Peace Accords, the telecommunications law does not allow licenses for nonprofit community radio. Only mainstream commercial radio and government-run radio are allowed. The country's 205 community radio stations, which broadcast locally in Spanish and Mayan languages, provide a crucial venue for educational programs, local and national news, preventative health care, and emergency relief..." [Does this mean all the community stations are unlicensed, or violating the terms of their licenses?]
  • "...In 1996, Guatemala, then one of the poorest countries in Central and South America, finally managed to end thirty-six years of civil war. That same year a new telecommunications law was passed. It established Títulos de Usufructo de Frecuencias (TUF), which are radio use rights that can be leased, sold, subdivided, or consolidated. TUFs are recorded in a publicly available database. A regulatory body administers simple rules governing TUFs. As of the first half of 2001, about 5000 TUFs have been issued to more than 1000 different persons. About 26% of these TUFs have been sold or otherwise transferred, and banks have judged them to be secure enough rights to be used as collateral for loans. Private mediation of interference disputes is encouraged, and parties can seek from the judiciary system damages for interference. The Guatemalan reforms have been highly successful... Guatemala has probably become the leading practical model of radio regulation reform for rich and poor countries around the world...." ---from "Revolutionary Ideas for Radio Regulation" by Douglas Galbi.
  • "The Consumer Welfare Gains of Guatemala's Liberal Reforms" by Thomas W. Hazlett, Giancarlo Ibarguen and Wayne A. Leighton, powerpoint presentation for the June 2005 conference on Convergence or Competition (see first item). See also the video of Wayne Leighton's lecture (in English).
  • "Spectrum Management for a Converging World: Case Study on Guatemala" by Giancarlo Ibarguen, presented at an ITU workshop on spectrum management, 16-18 February 2004 (27 pages): "Any person or company, national or foreigner may request title to any spectrum band not currently assigned to other users.... Regulation is limited to adjudicating disputes over interfering emissions and the set-aside of certain bands for state use..."
  • "What Guatemala Can Teach the FCC" by Giancarlo Ibarguen, Wall Street Journal, 27 December 2002.
  • Ley de Radiocomunicaciones (1980) and Ley General de Telecomunicaciones (1996, with amendments).

Latin America & Caribbean - Regional Overview