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ITALY

  • "Italy to remove public Wi-Fi restrictions" by Philip Willan, IDG News Service (via Network World), 5 November 2010: "Italy will remove existing restrictions on public Wi-Fi access to the Internet starting in January, Italian Interior Minister Roberto Maroni announced Friday. The government will abolish the Pisanu decree, which requires that businesses obtain a special license from the police in order to offer Wi-Fi access to the public and that users produce an official identity document, Maroni said at a press conference. The decree also requires that operators preserve a written record of Internet use. The decree was introduced for security reasons five years ago by then-Interior Minister Giuseppe Pisanu in the wake of the July terrorist bombings in London. Since then it has been renewed every year and is blamed for stunting the development of Wi-Fi technology in Italy. Italy has just 4,200 Wi-Fi hot spots, according to the Economic Development Ministry, while specialist publications put the figure even lower, at less than 2,000... Technical journalist Sergio Maistrello was also cautious in his welcome of the news. 'We are celebrating something that doesn't take us forward but simply brings us back to the starting line, from which we voluntarily chose to step back,' Maistrello told the ANSA news agency...."
  • "Stop alle norme del Decreto Pisanu, l'Italia verso un wi-fi libero" [Stop the provisions of the Pisanu decree, to free Italy's Wi-Fi], MediaLaws, 3 January 2011, in Italian. Translated excerpts: The 'Milleproroghe' decree (DL 29 Dec. 2010, No. 225) provided for partial repeal of the so-called 'Pisanu Decree' (Decree 27 July 2005, n. 144, art. 7), which imposed stultifying obligations on public Wi-Fi hot spots to combat terrorism. The 'Milleproroghe' decree eliminated the need to note the identity of hotspot users and ask for an identity document, to monitor their online activity and retain their traffic data for possible judicial requests. It also removed the need for owners and managers of companies providing the public with access services to obtain a license from the commissioner (this requirement was scheduled to expire on 31 December 2010 anyway).
  • "Il Ministro delle Comunicazioni: Decreto Wi-Fi," 4 October 2005 (decree in Italian. This amends the decree from May 2003 to reduce geographic and operational restrictions, to expand WiFi regulations to encompass all of Italy, and to end the authorizations' experimental nature. The aim is to encourage ISPs to use Wifi as a last-mile solution in small towns.
  • "Decreto Ministeriale di regolamentazione dei servizi Wi-fi ad uso pubblico" (Ministerial Decision on Rules concerning Wi-Fi for public use), Ministry of Communication, 8 May 2003, in Italian. Authorises public hotspots to be installed on an experimental basis in premises open to and frequented by the public - train stations, airports, parks, etc.
  • "Accesso ad Internet Senza Fili in Regime di Autorizzazione Generale e Uso Pubblico" (Access to the Internet without wires in the Regime of General Authorization and Public Use), Ministry of Communication, 2003. See also "Nota Esplicativa sul Decreto del Wi-Fi" (explanatory note on the WiFi decree), in Italian, 2003.
  • "Modifica del Piano Nazionale di Ripartizione delle Frequenze" - the Ministry of Communication modifies its 5 GHz band allocations for wireless LANs (February 2003).
  • "Open Spectrum, il nuovo paradigma wireless" di Raffaella Scalisi (31 January 2003) e Cos'è l'Open Spectrum" di Guiseppe Caravita (5 December 2003) - both in the Network Games blog, in Italian.
  • On 14 June 2003, Cristiano Siri extracted parts of the FCC's Spectrum Policy Task Force Report for his OninO blog: "Open Spectrum: A Path to Ubiquitous Connectivity." The excerpts (on license exempt spectrum and cognitive radio) are in English while his commentary is in Italian.
  • On 24 June 2003, the newspaper La Stampa published "Open Spectrum: passa dal 'wi-fi' il nuovo etere" di Stefano Porro, which set the stage for an interview by Anna Masera with Italy's Minister of Telecommunications, Maurizio Gasparri ("Gasparri: c'è spazio per tutti Il ministro risponde alle critiche sul suo decreto"). The interview focuses on Open Spectrum and Wi-Fi as a "universal service." Porro comments on the interview in an editorial for Quintostato the following day: "Il wi-fi dimezzato."
  • "Italy decrees data retention until 31 December 2007," EDRI-Gram - Number 3.16, 10 August 2005: "On 27 July 2005 the Italian government published a decree 'with urgent measures to fight international terrorism'... Article 7 decrees that all internetcafes and public telephone shops with at least 3 terminals must seek a license permit within 30 days from a 'questore', a local representative of the Ministry of Home Affairs. They have to store all traffic data of their customers as well. The length of this storage will be decided upon in a separate, yet to be issued, administrative decree. WIFI-points and locations that do not store traffic data will have to preventively demand ID from their users. This actually already is common practice in Italy; hotspots at several airports for example will only allow internet usage after the user has entered the serial number of his ID card or drivers license..."
  • Associazione per la libertà nella communicazione elettronica interattiva (association for freedom in interactive electronic communication).
  • "Tecnologie Digitali e Liberta" - a presentation by Juan Carlos de Martin at a conference on "Tecnologie digitali e diritto nell'era della Rete" (Cyberlaw Torino, 12-13 July 2004). About a third of the presentation is devoted to Open Spectrum policy issues, explained with simple metaphors. In Italian.
  • WLAN items in the Tel&Co wireless blog (all in Italian).
  • "Open Spectrum, wireless libero" di Raffaella Scalisi, in Nomad Village (2 February 2003).
  • "Networking with UWB" - website maintained by the Ultra Wide Band Goup at the University of Rome "La Sapienza."
  • "Italian RFID Lab Launches Warehouse Project," by Rhea Wessel, RFID Journal, 27 November 2006: "The RFID Lab at the University of Parma is developing a model of a full-scale warehouse to test radio frequency identification technology. The model includes receiving docks and storage racks. Based on input from 20 major Italian companies, the project will reproduce warehouse logistics processes typical to the food and fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector... The RFID Lab, which opened its doors six months ago (see 'Italian RFID Lab to Open in May'), was the first lab in Italy to receive a temporary license to test RFID in the UHF band. Most European Union (EU) member-states use the 865 MHz to 868 MHz radio frequency band. In Italy, that is the domain of the military, though there are some indications the country may open the band for other uses in the near future."

Europe - Regional Overview