"По словам замминистра информационных технологий и связи РФ Дмитрия Милованцева, рынок беспроводного доступа является одним из наиболее динамично развивающихся во всей отечественной телекоммуникационной отрасли. По оценкам г-на Милованцева, рынок беспроводного доступа растет на 61% в год..." (According to Dmitry Milovantsev, Russia's ICT Minister, the market for wireless Internet access is one of the fastest growing parts of the domestic telecom industry. Mr. Milovantsev estimates that the wireless access market is growing by 61% per year...) ---
"В России построена крупнейшая Wi-Fi-сеть" (In Russia is the largest Wi-fi service), RIA (via CNews), 15 December 2006
"The virtually universal licensing of all active subjects in the market of communications services is an out-of-date approach, that complicates work both of communications service operators and of state departments. In the Russian Statute On Licensing of Certain Types of Activity of 1998 it is fairly established, that licensing (as one of the most rigid forms of the state control) makes sense only if all other mechanisms of control are inapplicable or extremely inefficient..." ---from Explanatory Notes to the Draft Statute, 'On Amending the Federal Statute "On Communications"'..., Media Law and Policy Institute, Moscow (2002).
"Концепция регулирования радиочастотных взаимодействий" (Concept of the regulation of radio-frequency interactions) - in this 18-page essay and 11-slide powerpoint, both in Russian and apparently prepared for presentation on 24 October 2004, Vadim Novikov argues for radio frequency management to migrate to private property principles (stage one) and then to "open spectrum" [Открытый спектр in Russian] (stage two).
TRCH RSS-online" - the free searchable online frequency database of the Regional Commonwealth for Communications (RCC), in Russian. RCC provides communication policy coordination among the former Soviet republics. This database contains radio allocation information for Armenia, Ukraine, Moldova, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Belarus, Tajikistan and Russia, as well as coordination data for Norway, Finland, Estonia, Poland, Lithuania and Turkey.
"Цели и задачи современного этапа конверсии радиочастотного спектра в Российской Федерации," "(Goals and objectives of the current stage of the radio frequency spectrum conversion in the Russian Federation) by M. A. Bykhov, N. I. Kharitonov and E. E. Devyatkin, published in «Электросвязь», No. 1 (2006) in Russian. This short overview is written by the team in charge of developing the conceptual framework for transferring spectrum from the government to the private sector.
"Россвязь отстранили от частот," (Rossvyaz frequencies suspended) by Aleksandr Dementev, RBK Daily, 13 June 2007 in Russian (an English-language summary is in Novecon's Telecommunciations Digest for Russia/CIS): responsibility for managing radio frequencies and issuing licenses has passed from Rossvyaz to the new Federal Service for Supervision in Mass Communications, which was created by merging Rossvyaz and the cultural heritage protection agency. The new service, which reports directly to the government rather than to a ministry, has authority over mass media, communications, information technology, copyright, culture, etc.
"Russian Government Releases Radio Regulations," TIA Pulse Online, February 2000: "Russia's State Commission on Frequency Management recently published its Radio Regulations of the Russian Federation... This is the first time that Russia has made publicly available its plan for frequency allocations... An English-language version of the regulations is available, in hard copy format, for $800. A Russian-language version is available in both hard copy format and on CD-ROM, for $100..."
"The problem is that different economic sectors have been rapidly expanding the use of foreign-made mobile radio communication systems... which operate within frequency bands that have been long used by the domestic military communication systems. For this reason, it is particularly urgent to retain the radio frequency resource for military communication systems during implementation of the governmental program envisaging conversion of the radio frequency spectrum. The only correct way to deal with the problem, as we see it, is finding technical and organizational methods of coordinated functioning of different communication systems, which provide for a joint use of the radio frequency resource, rather than introduction of administrative bans and restrictions. The main effort in this context ought to be focused on ensuring electromagnetic compatibility..."
"Конверсия и открытый спектр" - (Converting and opening spectrum), 21 June 2006, in Russian - Vadim Novikov reflects on the seminar Stichting Open Spectrum gave at the Centre for Strategic Research in Moscow.
"Communications and Defense Ministries Find Common Language" - our analysis of Novecon's English-language summary of an article appearing in Vedomosti, 20 April 2007 (Vedemosti's archive is accessible only to subscribers): the Defense ministry and the Communications and IT ministry both control large blocks of frequencies - with Defense having the larger supply. The government's project to convert military frequencies to civilian use made these two ministries into rivals for power over the booming wireless communications industry. Two offices in the general military command were caught up in the rivalry - the Chief Signal Officer and the Office of Radio-Electronic Warfare. When the Chief Signal Officer won the internal power struggle, this led to a larger agreement: "Voentelecom" will coordinate the issuing of licenses for civilian use of military frequencies. [An earlier report by Interfax, quoted in the "Moscow Defense Brief," says the government created Voentelecom in October 2002 "to maintain and develop communication systems of the Russian Armed Forces, other troops, military formations and agencies. It will be subordinate to the Defense Ministry..."]
"Минсвязи лишают функций" (Ministry of Communications deprived of functions), Ведомости (Vedomosti), 20 March 2003, N° 47 (847) in Russian. According to this newspaper article, the Russian parliamentary group drafting a new law on communication accepted a number of "corrections ...in particular, questions of the regulation of radio-frequency spectrum... were removed from the scope of the Ministry of Communications. The deputies agreed that their draft should state that the radio spectrum must be regulated by the President. The discussion, apparently, dealt with the creation of an interdepartmental organ which is not subordinate to the Ministry of Communications..." [GKRCh?]
Official English translation of the Russian Federation law "On Communication" adopted and approved in June 2003. Chapter 6 is about licensing; Article 22 is about radio regulation.
According to an interview with Vasily Koshelev, president of ACS Consulting, in the September 2010 issue of Finance magazine (in Russian), ACS won the Russian Federation Council's 2009 tender to develop a draft federal law on the radio frequency spectrum. They hired an independent counsel whose draft bill was submitted by the Federation Council to the State Duma (no date given).
"The [2003 Communications] Law does not substantially improve or clarify licensing procedures... it does not provide information on what particular activities are subject to licensing, nor the procedures or criteria by which licensing decisions are made, and does not require the licensing agency to make public why a license is denied..."
ГКРЧ вплотную занялась новым "Планом перспективного использования радиочастотного спектра" (GKRCh considers new "Plan for promising uses of the radio-frequency spectrum"), IT Daily, 7 April 2005: Russia's allocation table and strategic plan for spectrum management were adopted in the mid-1990s and no longer "correspond to reality." So the State Commission for Radio Frequencies appointed new working groups to bring these documents up-to-date. The strategic plan should be ready by the 4th quarter of 2005, the table in the first quarter of 2006.
Национальная радиоассоциация (National Radio Association) - founded in 1997 as a nonprofit organization of equipment producers and licenseholders to help members solve problems related to frequency use and the introduction of new radio technologies.
"В Россию разрешили ввозить автомобильные локаторы и беспроводные слуховые аппараты," (Russia approves import and license-free use of automobile radars and wireless hearing aids), ITAR-TASS (via Gazeta.ru) in Russian, 20 August 2009: At their latest meeting the State Commission for Radio Frequencies added automobile radars and wireless hearing aids to the list of products which can be imported and used without special permission. They join the products already listed in SCRF Resolution 07-20-03-001 (frequency allocations for short-range devices)
"Govt approves resolution on sale of communications licenses,"Russia & CIS IT and Telecom Weekly (Interfax), 23 January 2006: "Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov on January 12 signed Resolution No. 8 on approving the rules for auctions or tenders for licenses to provide communications services, the government's press office said. This replaces an earlier resolution [No. 578 of June 10, 1998] on license tenders. The new rules apply to the sale of licenses for territories with limited number or frequency resources, but not to licenses for TV and radio broadcasting. Federal communications agency Rossvyaz will organize the tenders or auctions..."
"«Комстар-FON» стал крупнейшей в Москве сетью Wi-Fi," [Moscow's largest Wi-Fi net is now Comstar-FON], Comstar press release (in Russian): Comstar/United TeleSystems, the largest integrated telecommunications operator in Russia and the CIS, today announced an increase to 20,000 in the number of Wi-Fi access points in the Comstar-FON network. This represents a doubling in the last month and a 4-fold increase since the start of 2010. "Today Comstar-FON is the largest Wi-Fi network in the capital...," said Eugene Koryagin, head of FON Wireless in Russia... More information about this service, and a map of the active hot spots, can be found at www.fon.comstar.ru.
"Wi-Fi in Russia" by Maria Chernobrovkina, US Department of State, Foreign Commercial Service, 26 March 2004: "The essence of the problem is getting a license for frequencies. It is a bit easier to obtain such a license for the use of 2.4GHz indoors. But, obtaining a license for outdoor usage of this frequency could take more than a year..."
Telekom Consultants sells a documents kit with online help to speed the process of applying for authorisation of a WiFi network (all documents in Russian). The kit includes application forms for the necessary approvals - providing a clear picture of the complexity of the process.
"В России идет борьба с подпольным Wi-Fi" (In Russia, the fight against clandestine WiFi), CNews, 13 July 2006, in Russian: The Federal Service for Communications Oversight (Rosswaznadzor) fined the owners of 9 public Wi-Fi hotspots in Rostov for failure to register.
The June 2004 issue of J'son & Partner's Russian Wi-Fi Market Watch says that "2004 is becoming a launch year for Wi-Fi services in Russia as new users are signing up for commercial Wi-Fi services costing $6-10 per hour. There are now nearly 1,200-1,400 active users of Wi-Fi in Russia... Commercial hotspots first developed in St. Petersburg in 2003 and now reach 31 locations. In 2004 the Moscow market overtook St. Petersburg in number of hotspots with 47 locations... Students account for close to 60% of total Russian Wi-Fi users (as there are
many free hotspots in major universities). Business people are the second most active Wi-Fi user category in Russia. There are at least 400-600 regular Wi-Fi business users representing 70% of the actual revenue generated by Wi-Fi..."
J'son predicts that by the end of 2007, Russia will have more than 7000 public hotspots - an annual growth-rate of 1000%.
"The Russian market for broadband fixed wireless," by Andrey Gidaspov, Commercial Service, US Embassy Moscow, February 2004: "As the 2.4 Ghz frequency band, heavily used for Wi-Fi systems, has reached its saturation point, the majority of existing broadband wireless deployments in Russia are looking into shifting to 3.5 and 5.3 Ghz bands... While the BFW market in Russia is rapidly growing, there are still a number of barriers hampering further developments including: lack of frequency resources and cumbersome frequency regulation procedures, high equipment costs, lack of noise immunity and the large number of non-authorized users, especially in the large cities..."
Анализ основных причин отказа в выдаче лицензий и рекомендации по составлению заявлений на получение лицензии" (An analysis of the main reasons for non-licensing and recommendations on license applications), Federal Service for Communication Oversight (Rossvyaznadzor), 14 March 2007 in Russian: In 2006 Rossvyaznadzor processed some 15,000 license applications. Over 7600 new licenses were awarded and 1200 were extended, but about 3800 were rejected - mainly because of inconsistent, incomplete or unvalidated documentation accompanying the applications.
"How Russia became a Wimax superpower," by Jennifer Paster, Ground Report, 24 January 2011: "...Twenty years after the end of the cold war, Russia is getting a fresh technological start thanks to this revolutionary mobile Internet technology [WiMax] which enables smartphones to get really smart - and fast. This technological breakthrough has been carried out by a new generation of Russian engineers and businessmen, who have given away the usual centralized 'soviet era' reflexes for a pragmatic liberal approach of business. Albert Avdolyan is probably the most notable and successful of these young businessmen who are changing the game. His company, Expatel, is the rising star of Russian telecommunication and is currently expanding its [Wimax] activities abroad..."
RF-ID: Всё о радиочастотной идентификации (RFID - Everything about radiofrequency identification) - RFID news in Russian (items mostly from outside Russia, suggesting there is not yet much use of this technology inside Russia). Website affiliated with a Russian-language magazine called ID News.
"UPM Raflatac supplies RFID inlays for Moscow Metro contactless tickets," UPM press release, 5 February 2007: "The Moscow Metro is one of the world's most heavily used metro systems, carrying 8.2 million passengers on a normal weekday. The RFID inlays provided by UPM Raflatac will replace the cards with magnetic stripe Moscow Metro is currently using for tickets with a fixed number of journeys... In the first stage, the monthly usage of UPM Raflatac HF inlays... will be 5 million pieces. After a transitional period at the end of summer 2007, usage will rise to approximately 30 million inlays per month..."
Russian UWB Group (website in Russian and English) - focussing on UWB radar and research by the Moscow Aviation Institute, they also provide news about UWB communications technology development around the world.
"Телефон будущего," (Telephone of the future), in Открытые системы (Open Systems): Russian translation of Loretta Prensip's interview with Joseph Mitola about "cognitive radio" published in Computerworld, issue 13/2003.